[2] It has been used to make dyes and torches. ii. [18] European plants exhibit considerable phenotypical variation,[19] which has led to the plant acquiring many synonyms over the years. Animals rarely graze it because of its irritating hairs, and liquid herbicides require surfactants to be effective, as the hair causes water to roll off the plant, much like the lotus effect. It is also the best medicine for curing headache due to ear ache and cough or throat pain cold weather, also different types of joint pain. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. of the ecology of plants (including algae), in both aquatic and terrestrial [19][51], Great mullein most frequently grows as a colonist of bare and disturbed soil, usually on sandy or chalky ones. crassifolium, the hairiness is less dense and often absent from the upper part of the anthers, while lower leaves are hardly decurrent and have longer petioles. Quiets nervous, and bronchial, and urinary irritation, and cough. Populations were chosen at the northern (southern Canada) and southern (southern Texas and Georgia) limits of its range in North America, and in North Carolina and came from a range of the habitats occupied by the species. Common mullein is a biennial native to Eurasia and Africa that develops a basal rosette of felt-like leaves the first year, then bolts to heights of six feet or more. [9][10][12] Visitors include halictid bees and hoverflies. In such ecological contexts, it crowds out native herbs and grasses; its tendency to appear after forest fires also disturbs the normal ecological succession. All parts of the plants are covered with star-shaped trichomes. The 1630 number in Mitch may be a typo: the beginning of the 18th century is cited in other sources. I think they mean the word fruit botanically (fleshy seed case) and not as in anything edible by humans 12:37 Fri 18th Sep 2020. tamborine. [19], The seeds maintain their germinative powers for decades, up to a hundred years, according to some studies. These make the plant a potential reservoir for overwintering pests. The common mullein (V. thapsus) grows 0.6 to 2 metres (2 to 7 feet) tall, has a single, unbranched stem with large, It is a member of the Scrophulariaceae, the snapdragon family. [10], Phytochemicals in Verbascum thapsus flowers and leaves include saponins, polysaccharides, mucilage, flavonoids, tannins, iridoid and lignin glycosides, and essential oils. [12] Goats and chickens have also been proposed to control mullein. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. [16], At the time, no type specimen was specified, as the practice only arose later, in the 19th century. [19], The taxonomy of Verbascum has not undergone any significant revision since Svanve Mürbeck's monographies in the 1930s, with the exception of the work of Arthur Huber-Morath, who used informal group in organizing the genus for the florae of Iran and Turkey to account for many intermediate species. Ecology. [1], V. thapsus is a dicotyledonous plant that produces a rosette of leaves in its first year of growth. ", In book 25, Pliny describes "two principal kinds [of verbascum]" thought to be. Verbascum thapsus, commonly known as mullein, has been used in various types of medicines for a variety of conditions for thousands of years. is available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118509661/home. [48], In the United States it was imported very early in the 18th[note 3] century and cultivated for its medicinal and piscicide properties. Reinartz, James A. The species' chromosome number is 2n = 36. See also: Verbascum_thapsus § Traditional_medicine The plant has a long history of use as a herbal remedy. Verbascum thapsus (great mullein or common mullein) is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia. asperulum (Scrophulariaceae) two new records for the flora of Iran", "List of alien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild (as of October 27, 2004)", "Common Mullein—the Roadside Torch Parade", "An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding the Biology of Invasions: Local Adaptation and General-Purpose Genotypes in the Weed Verbascum thapsus", "Habitat requirements of central European bees and the problems of partial habitats", "Maintenance Behavior of the American Goldfinch", "Numbers and types of arthropods overwintering on common mullein, Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), in a central Washington fruit-growing region", "HOSTS – a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants", JLindquist.com: webpage with pictures of tall specimens, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Verbascum_thapsus&oldid=988929534, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Articles with Swedish-language sources (sv), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 02:04. [9] It is now found commonly in all the states. The journal of ecological principles and the research presented must transcend the limits 177 1753. Life history variation of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus) I. Latitudinal differences in population dynamics and timing of reproduction. 3. There are three usually recognized subspecies: In all subspecies but the type, the lower stamens are also hairy. Discussion in Working Party on European Unionmonographs and European Union list (MLWP) September 2007 October 2007 . [62], Seed of Verbascum thapsus has been recorded from part of the Cromer Forest Bed series and at West Wittering in Sussex from some parts of the Ipswichian interglacial layers. p. 223) analyzed the flow- ers of Verbascum Thapsus, and obtained a yellow volatile oil, a fatty ...ii. Symptoms Verbascum Thapsus Cure. The effects of former human occupation or. Verbascum depending on nomenclatural choices) alongside species such as Verbascum nigrum (black or dark mullein), Verbascum lychnitis (white mullein) and Verbascum sinuatum (wavy-leaved mullein).[21][22][23][24]. [6][note 1] The plant produces small, ovoid (6 mm, 0.24 in) capsules that split open by way of two valves, each capsule containing large numbers of minute, brown seeds less than 1 mm (0.04 in)[12] in size, marked with longitudinal ridges. verbascum thapsus https:/ /en.wik ipedia. Journal of Ecology was first published in 1913 to coincide with the Society's inaugural meeting and the portfolio has been expanded to include Journal of Animal Ecology (from 1932), Journal of Applied Ecology (from 1964), Functional Ecology (from 1987) and the online journal Methods in Ecology and Evolution (from 2010). The journal does not publish papers [31][75] The Zuni people, however, use the plant in poultices of powdered root applied to sores, rashes and skin infections. ---Habitat---Verbascum thapsus (Linn. History. This item is part of JSTOR collection Diese Pflanze wird schon seit langem in der pflanzlichen Heilkunde (Phytotherapie) angewendet. [19] Flowers are self-fecundating and protogynous (with female parts maturing first),[19] and will self-pollinate if they have not been pollinated by insects during the day. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. Common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L. #3 VESTH) has an ancient relationship with man. [3] The flowering stem is solid and 2–2.5 cm (nearly an inch) across, and occasionally branched just below the inflorescence,[4] usually following damage. [31], The plant has been used in an attempt to treat colds, croup, sunburn and other skin irritations. [56] Because of this, and because the plant is an extremely prolific seed bearer (each plant produces hundreds of capsules, each containing up to 700+ seeds,[19] with a total up to 180,000[9][10] or 240,000[12] seeds), it remains in the soil seed bank for extended periods of time, and can sprout from apparently bare ground,[10] or shortly after forest fires long after previous plants have died. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Fasciculata (or sect. A recent revision led its author to maintain V. giganteum but sink V. crassifolium into synonymy. concerned solely with cultivated plants and agricultural ecosystems. 72(3): 897-912. The electronic version of Journal of Ecology Authorized users may be able to access the full text articles at this site. Diodorus Siculus write that Agathocles of Syracuse conquered the city.. During his civil war, Julius Caesar defeated Metellus Scipio and the Numidian king Juba I at the costly 46 BC Battle of Thapsus. [55], A given flower is open only for a single day, opening before dawn and closing in the afternoon. 105 viride, ii. agricultural land use in forests may be visible both. Garrett, Kimball L., Raphael, Martin G. and Dixon, Rita D. (1996). [9][82], Due to its weedy capacities, the plant, unlike other species of the genus (such as V. phoeniceum), is not often cultivated. 178 p. Abstract. [1], A species of mullein in the family Scrophulariaceae native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia, The lectotypification is usually attributed to Arthur Huber-Morath (1971). Specific epithet honors the ancient village of Thapsus (now in ruins) located near Carthage in modern day Tunisia. [1] As for many plants, (Pliny the Elder described it in his Naturalis Historia),[note 5] great mullein was linked to witches,[31] although the relationship remained generally ambiguous, and the plant was also widely held to ward off curses and evil spirits. It grows in a wide variety of habitats, but prefers well-lit, disturbed soils, where it can appear soon after the ground receives light, from long-lived seeds that persist in the soil seed bank. Subsp. Seed dispersion requires the stem to be moved by wind or animal movement; 75% of the seeds fall within 1 m of the parent plant, and 93% fall within 5 m.[10], Megachilid bees of the genus Anthidium use the hair (amongst that of various woolly plants) in making their nests. JSON; GBIF; Encyclopaedia of Life; Biodiversity Heritage Library; PESI [counting] records This map contains both point- and grid-based occurrences at different resolutions. Although individuals are easy to remove by hand, populations are difficult to eliminate permanently. [12] Ground herbicides, like tebuthiuron, are also effective, but recreate bare ground and require repeated application to prevent regrowth. [54] Triennial individuals have been found to produce fewer seeds than biennial and annual ones. Although commonly used in traditional medicine, there are no approved drugs from this plant. [10], Seeds germinate in spring and summer. option. Journal of Ecology Durham, NC: Duke University. [69] The plant's ability to host both pests and beneficials makes it potentially useful to maintain stable populations of insects used for biological control in other cultures, like Campylomma verbasci and Dicyphus hesperus (Miridae), a predator of whiteflies. European Unionherbal monograph on Verbascum thapsus L., V. densiflorum Bertol. [7] All occur in Eurasia,[7] and three, V. × kerneri Fritsch, V. × pterocaulon Franch. [3][4] The leaves are large, up to 50 cm long. 12:34 Fri 18th Sep 2020. woofgang. [19] Great mullein rarely establishes on new grounds without human intervention because its seeds do not disperse very far. are accepted, as well as studies of the interactions between plants and animals, [73], Although long used in herbal medicine, no high-quality clinical research has been conducted on Verbascum thapsus as of 2018, and there are no drugs manufactured from its components. For example, in the “biennial” Verbascum thapsus, reproduction may actually take place in the first, second, or third year of growth depending on latitude and successional status of the habitat (Reinartz, 1984a, b). [63], Because it cannot compete with established plants, great mullein is no longer considered a serious agricultural weed and is easily crowded out in cultivation,[19] except in areas where vegetation is sparse to begin with, such as Californian semi-desertic areas of the eastern Sierra Nevada. Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia.[1]. This work describes life history variation in Verbascum thapsus L. with latitude. Although this plant is a recent arrival to North America, Native Americans used the ground seeds of this plant as a paralytic fish poison due to their high levels of rotenone. A molyhos ökörfarkkóró (Verbascum thapsus) a görvélyfűfélék (Scrophulariaceae) családjába tartozó növényfaj, amelynek természetes élőhelyei Európában, Észak-Afrikában és Ázsiában vannak. It never has been used for food but traditionally has been … [9][10][12] G. tetrum and Cucullia verbasci usually have little effect on V. thapsus populations as a whole. Während die Homöopathie gezielt Wirkstoffe einsetzt, die ähnliche Symptome bei Gesunden hervorrufen wie bereits beim Betroffenen in seiner Erkrankung vorliegen, ist die Phytotherapie als generelle (unspezifische) Pflanzenheilkunde zu betra… crassifolium also differs from the type in having slightly larger flowers, which measure 15–30 mm wide, whereas in the type they are 12–20 mm in diameter. There is substantial intraspecific variation in time of reproduction in most monocarpic plants. [80][31][75], Mullein may be cultivated as an ornamental plant. [9] Useful insects are also hosted by great mullein, including predatory mites of the genera Galendromus, Typhlodromus and Amblyseius, the minute pirate bug Orius tristicolor[67] and the mullein plant bug (Campylomma verbasci). In more northerly climates, biennial and triennial plants are favoured because they can produce more seed in the short but predictable growing season. 2. [5] The tall, pole-like stems end in a dense spike of flowers[3] that can occupy up to half the stem length. Catarrhs, and colds, with periodical prosopalgia. [27] In subsp. Kleinblütige Königskerze - Verbascum thapsus (Scrophulariaceae) Verbascum blattaria Verbascum densiflorum Verbascum lychnites Verbascum nigrum Verbascum phlomoides Verbascum speciosum. Papers is published six times a year. [11] The hair on lower stamens may serve to provide footholds for visitors. [57] The seeds are generally too small for birds to feed on,[11] although the American goldfinch has been reported to consume them. While it can also grow in areas where some vegetation already exists, growth of the rosettes on bare soil is four to seven times more rapid. It is a common weedy plant that spreads by prolifically producing seeds, and has become invasive in temperate world regions. Learn the translation for ‘Verbascum’ in LEO’s English ⇔ German dictionary. (4) Delay of flowering until the third year was most common among northern genotypes and was a response to unfavourable growth conditions. [79] It was also part of the National Formulary in the United States[75] and United Kingdom. This drug cures deafness and all symptoms related to cold as well. [7], On flowering plants, the leaves are alternately arranged up the stem. [31][53][74][75] The seeds contain several compounds (saponins, glycosides, coumarin, rotenone) that are toxic to fish, and have been widely used as piscicide for fishing. The second-year plants normally produce a single unbranched stem, usually 1–2 m tall. (5) Annual genotypes occurred only in the southern part of the range, at both wet and dry sites. Pl. [66], Despite not being an agricultural weed in itself, it hosts a number of insects and diseases, including both pests and beneficial insects. [10][12] Although not an agricultural threat, its presence can be very difficult completely to eradicate and is especially problematic in overgrazed pastures. [27] Both subsp. Verbascum thapsus L. Verbascum thapsus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Verbascum (family Scrophulariaceae). [78] The German Commission E describes uses of the plant for respiratory infections. In Mürbeck's classification, V. thapsus is placed in section Bothrospermae subsect. Burning is ineffective, as it only creates new bare areas for seedlings to occupy. The specific epithet thapsus had been first used by Theophrastus (as Θάψος, Thapsos)[14] for an unspecified herb from the Ancient Greek settlement of Thapsos, near modern Syracuse, Sicily,[14][15] though it is often assimilated to the ancient Tunisian city of Thapsus. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. [10] While they can germinate in total darkness if proper conditions are present (tests give a 35% germination rate under ideal conditions), in the wild, they in practice only do so when exposed to light, or very close to the soil surface, which explains the plant's habitat preferences. Of these, the most common is V. × semialbum Chaub. Annual genotypes are favoured only in the long southern growing season and where survival is uncertain in the second year because of drought or competition. Request Permissions. Journal of Ecology publishes original research papers on all aspects Verbascum. From treating the flu to ear infections to diarrhea, this plant has a long history in medicine. They are also used as emollient applications to hard tumours and in pulmonary complaints in cattle hence one of its popular names is Bullock’s Lung-wort. In this study, we investigated the antispasmodic and anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plant. Since Huber-Morath's groups are not taxonomical, Mürbeck's treatment is the most current one available, as no study has yet sought to apply genetic or molecular data extensively to the genus. [50] In Canada, it is most common in the Maritime Provinces as well as southern Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia, with scattered populations in between. nigrum). [31][75] Glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide effects in vitro were isolated from flowers. org/wik i/Verba scum_th apsus. Pain (mainly ear) and deafness – This medicine cures pain mainly in the ears and pain that continues to the throat and neck. Most population differences in length of these periods were maintained in the common garden. Background: Verbascum thapsus is used in tribal medicine as an antispasmodic, anti-tubercular agent and wormicide. respiratory illnesses, including asthma and tuberculosis. and V. × thapsi L. (syn. [5], It has been introduced throughout the temperate world, and is established as a weed in Australia, New Zealand, tropical Asia, La Réunion, North America, Hawaii, Chile, Hispaniola and Argentina. Texas plants also flowered for a longer period and their capsules dehisced later. At least five species of mullein have naturalize… [76] All preparations meant to be drunk have to be finely filtered to eliminate the irritating hairs. [53], Oil from the flowers was used against catarrhs, colics, earaches, frostbite, eczema and other external conditions. [70][71] A number of pest Lepidoptera species, including the stalk borer (Papaipema nebris) and gray hairstreak (Strymon melinus), also use V. thapsus as a host plant. are descriptive or historical accounts, although these must offer insights into Verbascum thapsus is the scientific name of the plant popularly known as mullein or common mullein, and less common as gordolobo. [53] Seeds germinate almost solely in bare soil, at temperatures between 10 °C and 40 °C. The History of the British Flora, A Factual Basis for Phytogeography by, "Element Stewardship Abstract for Verbascum thapsus", "Verbascum oreophilum var. A white-flowered form, V. thapsus f. candicans, is known to occur. need to integrate history into forest ecology is further. Mullein (Verbascum thapsus ) also known as great mullein, is a dramatic biennial herb of the Scrophulariaceae or figwort family. [44][45][46][47] It has also been reported in Japan. Biomass partitioning, life history, and population dynamics of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.). Verbascum thapsus near Brownstone Battery - geograph.org.uk - 1544367.jpg 480 × 640; 143 KB Verbascum thapsus plant1.jpg 960 × 1,280; 672 KB Verbascum thapsus Ukontulikukka Kungsljus IX07 H2360.JPG 1,712 × 2,272; 1.42 MB ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. Eaton went so far as to write: "When botanists are so infatuated with wild speculation, as to tell us the mullein was introduced, they give our youngest pupils occasion to sneer at their teachers. giganteum and subsp. The information rendered in the . [67], Other insects commonly found on great mullein feed exclusively on Verbascum species in general or V. thapsus in particular. Verbascum thapsus was used medicinally by some Native American tribes. [61] Additionally, deer and elk eat the leaves. (V. thapsiforme Schrad) and V. phlomoides L., flos . [9], Flowers are pentamerous with (usually) five stamen, a five-lobed calyx tube and a five-petalled corolla, the latter bright yellow and an 1.5–3 cm (0.59–1.18 in) wide. [30][31][32] In North America, "common mullein" is used[33][34] while western United States residents commonly refer to mullein as "cowboy toilet paper". issues of general interest to ecologists. Question Author. Books to Borrow. The dried stems may persist into the following spring or even the next summer. [80], Roman soldiers are said to have dipped the plant stalks in grease for use as torches. [24], The plant is also parent to several hybrids (see table). Verbascum thapsus L. Great Mullein species Accepted Name authority: UKSI Establishment means: Native. Select the purchase [2] Dioscorides first recommended the plant 2000 years ago, believing it useful as a folk medicine for pulmonary diseases. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. The seed is said to have arrived on the North American continent in the dirt used as ballast in old sailing vessels. However, the populations are long persistent as a dormant pool of seeds buried in the soil. [19][68] A study found V. thapsus hosts insects from 29 different families. 12:27 Fri 18th Sep 2020. tamborine. The plant produces a shallow taproot. crassifolium were originally described as species. By 1818, it had begun spreading so much that Amos Eaton thought it was a native plant. European reference books call it "great mullein". [74] Leaves were smoked to attempt to treat lung ailments, a tradition that in America was rapidly transmitted to Native American peoples. V. × spurium W.D.J.Koch), have also been reported in North America. [35][36], In the 19th century it had well over 40 different common names in English alone. It also hosts many insects, some of which can be harmful to other plants. Journal of Ecology. In the eastern part of its range in China, it is, however, only reported to grow up to 1.5 m tall. (3) Many genetically maintained differences, related to latitude of origin were noted. Some of the more whimsical ones included "hig candlewick", "indian rag weed", "bullicks lungwort", "Adams-rod", "hare's-beard" and "ice-leaf". [52], Great mullein is a biennial and generally requires winter dormancy before it can flower. Genetic components of life history variation were studied by growing seed from several different populations in a common garden in Durham, North Carolina. It belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family, and its origin is mainly European although it is also natural from Asia, Africa, and North America. [5][43][44] In northern Europe, it grows from sea level up to 1,850 m altitude,[4] while in China it grows at 1,400–3,200 m altitude. With noun/verb tables for the different cases and tenses links to audio pronunciation and … Check out using a credit card or bank account with. Both experimental and theoretical studies are accepted, as (1) Twenty-four natural populations of the monocarpic perennial Verbascum thapsus were mapped and studied over 3 years. When a lectotype (type selected amongst original material) was designated, it was assigned to specimen 242.1 of Linnaeus' herbarium, the only V. thapsus specimen.
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