Sometimes when pruning Lavender there are suitable sized pieces remaining to … Lavender oil contains up to 40% linalyl acetate and 30% linalol. The following information was compiled from a literature review in 1999, which will hopefully provide helpful information sources to the interested grower. In a 1992 study on the micropropagation of Lavenders and Lavandins, a tissue culture protocol was established for the mass propagation of disease free plantlets from commercial hybrid stock plants. What made it so helpful? According to Tucker and Hensen (1985) lavenders can be distinguished by their bracts; those of L. angustifolia are ovate-rhombic in outline, with a length/width ratio of 0.83 to 2.20 with bracteoles absent or up to 2.5 mm long. 1987. In bioactivity studies in India, lavendula species have been proven to show potent activity against insect pests (Sharma et al., 1992). Furthermore, you can use tissue culture for the mass propagation of lavender from selected mother plants. Rodale’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs. Vegetable Gardening — North Carolina Extension Gardener Handbook, Vernon G. James Research & Extension Center, Entomology – Insect Biology and Management, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center, Weed Management in Nurseries, Landscapes & Christmas Trees. Rooting hormone helps prevent the tip from rotting and encourages quick, strong root development, but lavender roots well without it. Avoid heavy organic mulches (sawdust, wood chips) as they can increase both fungal pathogens and insect problems. These include choice of cultivar, use of soil amendments, how and when flowers are gathered (optimal when flowers are fully expanded), how quickly the harvest is distilled, and how it is distilled (steam distillation is better than water). Hortscience 19(4):595. Some types of lavender bloom freely, making it hard to get a blossom-free stem when the wood is soft. Egyptian Journal of Horticulture. 1996. Adam, K. Lavender as an alternative crop. If you are starting a large-scale lavender farm, you must have a proper marketing planning. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. If a good cover crop had been grown or manure was added to the field before planting, fertilization may not be necessary for several years. Garden herbs as hosts for Southern Root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita ­ (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, race 3 ]. Cover with plastic to form a greenhouse-like environment for the cuttings. Tissue cultured plantlets could therefore be a good source of disease-free plantlets for regeneration purposes (Chambdon, 1992). Plants should be thinned to 24-36 inches apart with rows 30 to 36 inches apart. Keep rooting sections moist and expect transferable plants within 2 weeks to 2 months depending on environmental conditions (Oliver, 1996). A typical plant after harvest Herb garden favorites around the world. 1992. pp. An Austrian study provided evidence of sedative effects of the essential oil of lavender after inhalation. Lavender Propagation As these are naturally short-lived plants, even the bravest pruning regime will probably only extend a lavender’s life to ten years or so. Yield and quality of lavender in relation to foliar application of sulphur and phosphorus. Lavender requires well-drained light, sandy, or sandy loam, or gravelly soils in full sun. This plant is a 2-3 foot shrub with fragrant, lilac-colored spikes blooming in midsummer. Propagation by seed creates overlapping traits and further variation within cultivars. San Juan Naturals, WA. This cultivar was developed by the late Ted Torrey, head plant breeder for W. Atlee Burpee & Company. In the book “A Modern Herbal” published in 1931, Mrs. M. Grieve suggests taking cuttings from young wood in fall or spring by pulling a healthy branch downward so that a piece of the older wood (heel) is retained. Typically, lavandin varieties bloom 3-4 weeks later than English lavender and have significantly higher essential oil concentrations. Raev, R., Jordanov, R., Zheljazkov, V., Rabotyagov, V., Craker, L., Nolan, L., Shetty, K. 1996. Any individual interested in lavender production needs to understand the complicated taxonomy of Lavendula species before attempting to choose a cultivar. Because many lavender varieties are not winter hardy and some exhibit poor rooting ability, careful choice of cultivar is recommended. As for varieties, I suggest you try many of them and see which ones grow best on your farm or garden, and which have the colors, fragrances, and forms you desire. Pruning lavender at least twice a year is an important way to ensure it stays bushy and healthy, so there’s no harm in taking the offcuts from routine pruning to create even more lovely lavender plants.. Aoyama, E., Ono, E., Furlan, M. 1996. Horticulture technical note. This is a statewide program but focuses on the needs of the small and medium size farms that make up the agricultural landscape of western North Carolina, and new farmers, hobby farmers, organic gardeners, and specialty crop producers across the eastern U.S. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. The bioactivity of lavandula species against insects in India proved that the majority of the plants studied showed activity against insect pests (Sharma et al., 1992). Induced polyploidy in lavender. Dark-flowered cultivars are less resistant to disease than the pale-flowered varieties. This is NOT the way to efficiently prune lavender! The name “lavender” comes from the Latin verb lavare “to wash” or “to bathe.” There are approximately 20 species of lavender with hundreds of various genotypes differentiated by variations ranging from growth form to chemical composition of essential oil. The positive influence of foliar applications of sulfur (1%) and phosphorus (1%) on the yields, volatile oil and minerals of lavender was studied during 2 successive seasons in Egypt. Hussein, M., El-Saeid, E., El-Sherbeny, S. 1996. Commercial lavandin oil- and flower- producing cultivars include, Grosso, Abrialii, Super, Standard, Maime Epis. The Bootstrap Guide to Medicinal Herbs in the Garden, Field and Marketplace. ... Propagation of lavandins from seed is not usually recommended in order to produce plants true to type. In a study on the vegetative propagation of lavender by rooting of stem sections, 1 year old wood, various mixed wood, and three-year-old wood stem sections were compared. Cuscuta epithymum– Dodder vine – (parasitic flowering plant) Commercial Lavender Planting Growing Commercial Lavender in the Midwest Peaceful Acres Lavender Farm is located in growing Zone 5. Remove the plastic bag when the cutting has roots. Cuttings are then planted in 2.5 inch pots, pinched, and produce marketable plants in 6-8 weeks. Current research from the Netherlands has proven that essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia suppress sprouting in potato tubers and are also antimicrobial. The common narrow-leafed variety grows 1-3 ft high with a short but irregular crooked, much-branched stem, covered with a yellowish-gray bark, which comes off in flakes and very numerous erect straight, broom-like, slender, bluntly quadrangular branches, finely pubescent with stellate hairs. If damaged plants are present, remove and destroy any infected plant material and avoid replanting with susceptible varieties. Atti del convegno internazionale: Coltivazione e miglioramento di piante officinali, Trento, Italy. LAYERING. Both leaf size and plant height (3 ft) are larger in lavandin when compared to English lavender. Oliver, P. 1996. Its unique attributes include that it germinates quickly (14-28 days; 78% germination), it comes true from seed, and blooms the first year (south- 3 months; north- 5-6 months). Stick the lower end of the cutting about 2 inches into the soil and firm the soil so that the cutting stands up straight. 113-6. ‘Irene Doyle’ Lavender. Tissue culture (syn., in vitro culture, micropropagation) methods have been developed for the mass propagation of lavender varieties from hybrid stock plants. It has ovate-rhombic bracts like English lavender but the width to length ratio is 1.33 to 3.00 and bracteoles are always 1-4 mm long. Closer to home Thomas DeBaggio successfully propagates lavender from stem tip cuttings. Woody herbs propagate by layering naturally when trailing branches grow close to the soil surface and send down roots, which create new plantlets. To grow this plant you must have a right climate similar to Mediterranean area. It can reach 3 feet in height and spread. (Optional) Lavandins produce large, long stemmed flowers which are slightly gray in color while English lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) varieties produce shorter-stemmed flowers with a blue color when dried. Essential oils are accumulated in the flowers and flower stalks. Lavandin varieties (Lavendula x intermedia) produce both the highest yields of flowers and highest concentrations of essential oil per acre. Choose stems with good color and no buds. If not, then you will need to find or befriend someone willing to share cuttings from their plant. It requires good drainage and prefers a warm, well-drained loam with a slope to the south or southwest. Blossoms drain the plant of energy, and it’s unlikely that a stem will have the resources to form good roots if it is trying to bloom. In ancient Egypt it was used as a perfume and as an essential ingredient for incense. Of the various blue cultivars, Irene Doyle (Tucker, 1984) is considered unique in its ability to flower twice. Another method of spacing is to plant 18 inches apart each way for the first year of growth, then to remove every other plant in the second year resulting in 36 inch spacing which produces optimal flower and essential oil yields. 1973). Lavandin is a sterile hybrid and must be vegetatively propagated. Check to see if the stems have roots by giving them a gentle tug. Describe commercial lavender growing operations. Oliver, P. 1996. Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA). Propagation by seed creates overlapping traits and further variation within cultivars. Introduction to Commercial Lavender Production Harvesting, Drying, Pruning ... • Lavender needs to be pruned back hard, or plants will become too large, woody and will splay open in the middle. Propagation. propagation in a specific agricultural production context. There are two esters in the oil which are the primary source for the odor of lavender. If seed… The majority of the oil extracted from the flowers is contained in the glands on the calyx. This heavy pruning stimulates growth from the base of the plant. An important aspect of propagation for essential oil production is an understanding of the phytochemistry associated with the lavender varieties. Dip the stripped tip of the cutting in rooting hormone, if desired. It was also believed that a sprinkle of lavender water on the head of a loved one would keep the wearer chaste. Lavender is harvested mechanically in foreign countries using specially designed machinery for essential oil purposes although it is harvested by hand for cut flower production. There are many cultivars of English Lavender including the white dwarf Nana Alba, also pink varieties designated Rosea, Jean Davis, and Lodden Pink, which may be the same cultivar. No need to register, buy now! Sign up to get all the latest gardening tips! During the Middle ages it was considered an herb of love and was used as an aphrodisiac. Kowalchik, C., and Hylton, W., Eds. Dr. A. O. Tucker advises using one to two inches of white sand as a mulch around plants to reduce fungal pathogen infection. Agric. 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If you’re new to plant propagation, taking lavender cuttings in summer is a good way to start as they root easily and will provide you with lots of new plants for free.. Learning how to propagate is a fun and important skill for a lavender grower to learn, so we wanted to share our process with you. El-Sherbeny, S., El-Saeid, H., Hussein, M. 1997. 1994. However, only 3 species are popular for commercial lavender farming. He nips the buds and removes all leaves from the bottom half of the cuttings. Rasteniev dni-Nauki. Roman superstition persisted that the asp (a dangerous viper) made his nest in lavender bushes which drove up the price of the plant and made it necessary to approach it with caution. According to Jim Duke, (retired botanist, USDA) annual rainfall can range from 12-54 inches per year for lavender cultivation (Foster, 1993). You can start lavender from hardwood or softwood cuttings. Written by Joe-Ann McCoy, Ph.D. 1999. pp. Studies on the vegetative propagation of lavender. The Herb Companion. It is generally treated as an annual and grown as an ornamental. Learn More About NC State Extension, We have several topic based e-mail newsletters that are sent out periodically when we have new information to share. When it comes to lavender, more is always better ... Propagation Tags Edible Flowers, Lavender, Medicinal Plants, Mint ... or small pebbles – to a 6-inch pot, then fill it with a commercial potting medium or mix your own. Studies on the reconstruction of lavender plantings to wide row spacing in regard to mechanized cultivation and harvest Rastenievud. Thomas DeBaggio of DeBaggio Herbs in Arlington, VA, has reported that lavenders develop optimally with 33 inches of annual rainfall. Septoria lavandulae -­ leaf spot 426:561-572. Slow growth rates should be expected in the first year (6-8 in). 24(1):7-17. The spikes are composed of whorls or rings of flowers, each composed of six to ten flowers; the lower whorls becoming more distant from each other. Uncovered flats are placed in a partially shaded greenhouse for propagation. Cuttings are placed in a soil medium composed of one part perlite and one part peat moss (11x21x2 1/2-inch plastic flats which hold 100-300 cuttings). Select species appropriate to the climatic and soil conditions of a chosen locality. English lavender (L. angustifolia) cultivars are best for dried flower purposes because the flowers persist on the stems when dry, whereas Lavandin cultivars are easily separated from the stem and are better suited for essential oil and potpourri purposes. Pile up 2-3 inches of bark under the stem section and make a shallow depression in the top of the pile. Janick, J., and Simon, J. John Wiley and Sons, NY. This is the simplest method of propagation, although the least efficient in terms of time and number of regenerants per plant. Seed propagation is not ideal for most home gardeners, although it is the best propagation method to use for breeding new lavender varieties. Propagating lavender from cuttings is also fairly easy to do and you can use the same method for other plants like … Due to its insecticidal properties, lavender was strewn over floors in castles and sickrooms as a disinfectant and deodorant. Foster, S. 1984. homepage 1995. Flowering is generally from mid to late June to early July. This powerful and potent herb has been utilized throughout antiquity and is still retained as a common household ingredient today. 53(2-3):267-272. The spirituous tincture of the dried leaves or seeds, if prudently given, cures hysterik fits though vehement and of long standing.”. Propagating Lavender Plants You can start lavender from hardwood or softwood cuttings. Here is a step-by-step guide on how to propagate lavender from … Flowers for oil production are harvested when at about 50% blooming. Prices can range from $10 to $15 per pound. Lavender can produce well with an annual rainfall range of 300 to 1400 mm per year. Most lavenders are hardy to USDA zones 5 to 9, but if you live in an area where the winter temperatures get below about -10 degrees F, consider taking some cuttings of your favorite plants in early fall and growing them indoors over the winter in case your outdoor plants freeze out. The English Physitian: or an astrologo-physical discourse of the vulgar herbs of this nation. Currently, the majority of lavender products are utilized for essential oil production and for their aromatic properties. A thick layer of mulch is recommended after the first frost. Hardiest plants are English lavender (L. angustifolia), Lavandin (L. x intermedia) and spike lavender (L. spica, or L. latifolia). This produces a safe. Choose non-flowered shoots of this year’s growth and ensure that they’re free from pests and disease. The 1/4 inch wide, purple, oblong to oval-shaped bracts are up to 1/2 inch in length with 3/8-inch dark purple flowers. They root quickly but aren’t as reliable as hardwood cuttings. Read on to learn more. 2. Center-Home Page. English lavender varieties prefer chalky soils, whereas the lavandin varieties require slightly more acidic soils. You will automatically get notified when we post news to this site. Sturdivant, L. and Blakley, T. 1999. What separates NC State University from other schools? The results indicated that flaming with this machine significantly reduced weeds but that the lavender plants were susceptible to damage if sufficient care was not taken (Martini, 1996). June 1998. Preliminary testing was performed on lavender field crops to test a prototype machine designed to control weeds by flaming. Hidcote (L. angustifolia), Munstead (L. angustifolia), and Superblue (L. angustifolia) are also well-known varieties and often good choices for North Carolina. 12(2):173-181. Want to see which lists are available? Raev et al. L. lanata, wooly lavander, is an exceptional potpourri plant because of its balsam-lavender fragrance. 1999 was dubbed the “Year of Lavender”; as a result there was an increased demand for information and literature concerning all aspects associated with lavender production. and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. The leaves are opposite, sessile, entire, blunt and linear or lance-shaped. The calyx is tubular and ribbed, with thirteen veins, purple-gray in color, five-toothed and hairy with shiny oil glands among the hairs visible with a hand lens. 1992. Our high humidity and rainfall present the biggest challenges to lavender, so plant in an area where it will get good air flow, too. Purchasing lavender seedlings or taking cuttings from existing plants is an easier way to grow lavender. N.C. Young plants should be set out in early spring in rows 2 feet apart with one foot spacing between plants. Photo by Lorna Kring. I have shared my propagation addiction before, Lilacs, Roses, Clematis, Delphiniums and Geraniums, to name a few. DeBaggio recommends fertilizing every three weeks during the first year of growth and irrigating once a week during dry periods. Leaves are 1 1/4 inch long; linear-oblong with rounded teeth at margins, grayish in color and covered with soft fuzz. The project doesn’t require any special equipment, and it’s easy enough for a beginner.
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